Intelligence Without Reason

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Rodney A. Brooks
John Mylopoulos, Ray Reiter (eds.)
12th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI 1991), pages 569-595
Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA

Computers and Thought are the two categories that together define Artificial Intelligence as a discipline. It is generally accepted that work in Artificial Intelligence over the last thirty years has had a strong influence on aspects of computer architectures. In this paper we also make the converse claim; that the state of computer architecture has been a strong influence on our models of thought. The Von Neumann model of computation has lead Artificial Intelligence in particular directions. Intelligence in biological systems is completely different. Recent work in behavior-based Artificial Intelligence has produced new models of intelligence that are much closer in spirit to biological systems. The non-Von Neumann computational models they use share many characteristics with biological computation.