Recurrent Galactic Cosmic-Ray Flux Modulation in L1 and Geomagnetic Activity during the Declining Phase of the Solar Cycle 24

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Catia Grimani, Andrea Cesarini, Michele Fabi, Federico Sabbatini, Daniele Telloni, Mattia Villani
The Astrophysical Journal 904(1), pages 64
November 2020

Short-term variations (<1 month) of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux in the inner heliosphere are mainly associated with the passage of high-speed solar wind streams (HSS) and interplanetary (IP) counterparts of coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Data gathered with a particle detector flown on board the ESA LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft, during the declining part of solar cycle 24 (2016 February–2017 July) around the Lagrange point L1, have allowed us to study the characteristics of recurrent cosmic-ray flux modulations above 70 MeV n−1. It is shown that the amplitude and evolution of individual modulations depend in a unique way on both IP plasma parameters and particle flux intensity before HSS and ICME transit. By comparing the LPF data with those gathered contemporaneously with the magnetic spectrometer experiment AMS-02 on board the International Space Station and with those of Earth’s polar neutron monitors, the GCR flux modulation was studied at different energies during recurrent short-term variations. It is also aimed to set the near real-time particle observation requirements to disentangle the role of long- and short-term variations of the GCR flux to evaluate the performance of high-sensitivity instruments in space such as the future interferometers for gravitational wave detection. Finally, the association between recurrent GCR flux variation observations in L1 and weak to moderate geomagnetic activity in 2016–2017 is discussed. Short-term recurrent GCR flux variations are good proxies of recurrent geomagnetic activity when the Bz component of the IP magnetic field is directed north.